GLOSSARY

acculturation: the process whereby the attitudes and/or behaviors of people from one culture are modified as a result of contact with a different culture. Accessed November 28, 2007 http://www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/acculturation.

AIDS: acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease, caused by HIV, which damages cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight off illness.

appendices: supplementary material at the end of a report, which gives useful additional information but without it report would still be complete. Examples of some appendices for a report could be references, entire statistical tables, or transcripts.

alienation: the state or experience of being isolated from a group or activity to which one should belong; withdrawal or emotional isolation.

assimilation: the act of becoming like or conforming to one’s surroundings.

average: the result obtained by adding several amounts together and then dividing the total by the number of amounts.

Capacity Building Assistance (CBA): assistance provided to organizations that need to develop certain skills or competence in order to better serve their communities; in this case, assistance given to organizations that serve Native communities to help develop and strengthen their HIV prevention projects and programs.

community forum: a public meeting or lecture involving community discussion.

community member interview: a planned meeting or conversation with a community member in order to obtain useful information or feedback.

community needs assessment: a community needs assessment reports on the results of information-gathering activities about your population of interest (such as Native out-of-school youth or Native drug-injecting women).

community resource inventory: a compilation of available, accessible, and culturally appropriate resources and services (and their funding sources) used by the focus populations in your area.

Community Services Assessment (CSA): the process of collecting information and feedback to create a picture of what is going on in a community and then analyzing that information for gaps in services; this process helps to make programs more responsive to community needs and challenges.

contact: exposure to a source of infection.

contact and colonization: refers to foreign nations making contact with and then establishing settlements in distant areas where they previously did not live; in this case, European colonists made contact with certain Native populations, settled in those areas, and then dominated the Native way of life.

control (group): a standard of comparison; a control group ensures that any changes observed in an experimental group are due solely to the drug or experimental procedure and not to any other factors.

cultural competency: a set of behaviors, attitudes, and policies that enables a system, agency, or group of professionals to work effectively in cross–cultural situations (Cross et al., 1989; Isaacs & Benjamin, 1991).

cultural components: the key issues that define a population’s culture, including language and communication style, health beliefs, family relationships, sexuality, gender roles, religion, level of contact with other cultures, immigration status, political power, racism, poverty and economic concerns, and history of oppression.

cumulative: made up of accumulating parts; increasing by successive additions.

data collection protocol: “how-to” for each method of data collection selected.

demographics: the statistical characteristics of human populations (such as age, race, sex, income, education, and occupation).

determinant: any factor (whether event, characteristic, or other definable entity) that brings about change in a health condition, or in other defined characteristics.

dissemination: to distribute results or reports widely across a broad range of communities, agencies, and/or people to equally share information and to generate discussion.

discrimination:  the unequal treatment of groups based on their particular identities—generally, racial and ethnic groups but also extending to nearly any distinguishable identity category, including age and gender; often associated with prejudice.

distribution: in epidemiology, the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics and events in a population.

epidemic: a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease in which many people are infected at the same time.

estimate: an approximate calculation of quantity.

executive summary: the synopsis at the beginning of final report, which highlights key facts, issues, and conclusions.

focus group: a group of 8–12 people with a common characteristic of interest to the project are brought together for a 1 to 2 hour session to share their answers to questions about their perceptions, attitudes, community norms, regarding topic of interest.

focus population: the people intended to be served by your program; in this case, Native people who have or are at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.

frequency distributions: tallies of the number of times each score or response to a specific question occurs within a given group.

gap analysis: identifies where there are gaps (unmet needs, underused services, or overused services) between the needs assessment report and resource inventory.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: a U.S. regulation that gives patients greater access to their own medical records and more control over how their personally identifiable health information is used. The regulation also addresses the obligations of healthcare providers and health plans to protect health information.

hero-heroine story: a story whose central character is a male or female role model that embodies positive and sometimes superhuman qualities.

high-risk factors: a variable or behavior that highly increases one’s chances of acquiring a disease or infection.

HIV: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. It may be passed from one person to another when infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions come in contact with an uninfected person’s broken skin or mucous membranes. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their baby during pregnancy or delivery, as well as through breast-feeding.

HIV prevention intervention: an HIV prevention intervention is a specific activity (or set of related activities) intended to reduce HIV risk in a particular focus population. The HIV prevention intervention has a distinct method/process of delivering its message. When the terms are used separately, “prevention” refers to the actions intended to keep HIV from occurring and spreading; “intervention” refers to the reactionary method, process, or program that seeks to change existing attitudes, behaviors, and social factors contributing to HIV prevalence in the community.

homophobia: a strong fear, dislike, and/or negative bias toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and Two-Spirit people and their behaviors or actions.

implementation fidelity: the concept of implementation fidelity, sometimes called adherence or integrity, is a determination of how well the program is being implemented in comparison with the original program design (i.e., is the program being delivered as it was designed and implemented in its efficacy and/or effectiveness trials). It is measured by process evaluation.

incidence rate: a measure of the frequency with which an event, such as a new case of illness, occurs in a population over a period of time (the denominator is the population at risk; the numerator is the number of new cases occurring during a given time period).

indicator: an indicator can be defined as the measurement of an objective to be met, a resource mobilized, an effect obtained, or a gauge of quality. 

Institutional Review Board (IRB): is a group that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans with the alleged aim to protect the rights and welfare of the participants of the study. (Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_Review_Board)

intergenerational trauma: mental or emotional stress that occurs over a life span and across generations, as a result of genocide and a history of abuse.

intervention: the act of stepping in to change the course of a situation; in this case, taking action to further prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.

intravenous drug: a drug taken by injection into the vein.

KABB: a public health acronym for knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

logic model: a flow chart depiction of how a program operates by logically connecting issues, behavioral theory, inputs, outputs, and outcomes.

marginalization: a process by which a group or individual is denied access to important positions and symbols of economic, religious, or political power within any society.

matrifocal: having a mother as the head of the family or household.

mean: also known as “average,” the result obtained by adding several amounts together and then dividing the total by the number of amounts.

methodology: the way in which information (data) is collected

mode of transmission: the way that the disease infects and spreads from one person to another.

MSM (men who have sex with other men): MSM refers to any man who has sex with a man, whether he identifies as Two-Spirit, gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. MSM represent a wide variety of people, lifestyles, and associated risks for HIV and other infectious diseases. Accessed November 28, 2007 http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25989.

needs assessment: a picture of the prevention and care needs of the population at risk for HIV infection; reports on the results of your findings—information about the population of focuss, such as Native out-of-school youth, or Native drug-injecting women.

outbreak: an outbreak; a sudden rise in the incidence of a disease.

population: a body of individuals having a quality or characteristic in common, especially location; in this case, population indicates

population at risk: a group of people engaging in behaviors or living in conditions that increase their likelihood of infection.

prevalence: the number or proportion of cases or events or conditions in a given population.

prevalence rate: the proportion of persons in a population who have a particular disease or attribute at a specified point in time or over a specified period of time.

public health surveillance data: ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health related data essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice. Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5013a1.htm)

public hearing: a public hearing is a special type of public meeting during which the public can make comments on a proposed agency decision.

qualitative data: information that is difficult to measure, count, or express in numerical terms; it is often presented in textual or narrative form and is rich in detail and description.

quantitative data: information expressed in numerical format; epidemiological statistics fall into this category of information.

Red Road: a twelve-step sobriety and recovery program rooted in Native cultural principles.

resource inventory: the prevention intervention and care activities/services to address the needs of the population at risk for HIV infection; a compilation of available, accessible, and culturally appropriate resources and services (and their funding sources) used by the focus population in your area.

risk factor: an aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or an inborn or inherited characteristic that is associated with an increased occurrence of disease or other health-related event or condition.

sacred story: a traditional story that reflects or explains a specific group’s spiritual beliefs; often a creation story of some kind.

secondary research: data which already exists in some form, having been collected for a different purpose.

secondary research: data which already exists in some form, having been collected for a different purpose.

"self-administered": completed by the individual on his/her own.

sexually transmitted infections (STIs): also known as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), STIs are infections commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex.

social marketing: the use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole.

social structure: the composition of a social group (society) and the way it is organized.

stakeholders: persons who have an investment in the conduct of the evaluation and the findings; it is especially important to engage primary users of the evaluation. Accessed November 28, 2007 http://www.cdc.gov/eval/engaging%20stakeholders.PDF.

substance abuse: the misuse of any substance, particularly drugs or alcohol, for its stimulant effects.

survey: to query (someone) in order to collect data for the analysis of some aspect of a group or area.

Talking Circle: a group discussion in which participants sit in a circle and discuss a topic in a non-confrontational manner; often a talking stick, or other item, gets passed around to signify whose turn it is to speak.

target/focus population: the persons for whom a program or intervention is intended.

transition modes: refers to the behaviors or manner in which HIV is transmittable through one of the four viable body fluids (i.e. unprotected sex is a transmission mode through which the virus can be transmitted due to exposure to semen and/or vaginal fluid, using dirty hypodermic needles to inject drugs is a transmission mode through which HIV can be transmitted due to the exchange of blood).

trickster story: a myth or story that features a character-god, goddess, spirit, human, or animal—that plays pranks or disobeys normal rules and norms of behavior; by comically breaking the rules, the trickster teaches us a lesson and often brings about a positive change.

twelve-step: of or being a program designed to assist in the recovery from addiction or compulsive behavior; participants often attend meetings where they share their experiences, challenges, successes and failures, and provide peer support for each other.

Two-Spirit: a term for Native people possessing both masculine and feminine energies, often used to describe lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex Native people.

utilization-focused evaluation: an approach where the specific, intended uses of the evaluation is central to all processes and ensures the participation of the intended primary users of the evaluation.

variable: a concept whose value changes from case to case. For example, class varies, with some people being identified as middle class and others as working class (http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/macionis4/chapter2/objectives/deluxe-content.html)